Models for Understanding Technology Integration
What follows are two ways of looking at technology integration. This information is presented here to give you some background on the research behind integrating technology into teaching and learning.
The SAMR Model
The SAMR Model, developed by Dr. Ruben Puentedura, describes technology integration through four levels defined as follows:
Substitution: Technology is used as a direct substitute for what you might do already, with no functional change.
Augmentation: Technology is a direct substitute, but there is functional improvement over what you did without the technology.
Modification: Technology allows you to significantly redesign the task.
Redefinition: Technology allows you to do what was previously not possible.
While the first intuitive step for using any new classroom tool is to substitute it for what you already do, the goal for a teacher in a 1:1 classroom is to move beyond the substitution and augmentation levels (Enhancement) and toward the modification and redefinition levels (Transformation).
Here's an informative article from EdWeek about a teacher who redefined her classroom instruction as a result of the technology, in particular, iPads.
In this article, EdTechTeacher blogger Beth Holland provides a healthy perspective on SAMR, technology integration, and the Redefinition stage.
The TPACK Model
TPACK stands for Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge, and the interaction between these three concepts as they relate to teaching in a technology enhanced learning environment.
Here's a terrific video explaining the TPACK model, from Candice M, TPACK in 2 Minutes.
See Dr. Matthew Koehler's definition of What is TPACK?
SAMR and TPACK Resources